What is Dosha?
The Pancha Mahabhutas (five elements) themselves are inanimate, but in combination, they give rise to three biological forces, or principles called the doshas. The three doshas influence the functions of the human body, and each is derived from a combination of the five elements.
All five elements are present in each dosha, but the predominance of two elements create a dosha. Together, the predominance of space and air form Vata, vata represents movement and governs all doshas. Pitta is constituted by the predominance of fire ad water, the principle of transformation. Earth and water create the Kapaha dosha, the principle of earth or solidity. Thus, the five essential elements form three doshas.
The three doshas are an elegant description of the physiological, biological, and psychological organization in nature. When this organization is disturbed in the body, the disease becomes present. When the doshas are in the balance, a disease can not exist. Thus, the Ayurvedic clinician then focuses on restoring doshic balance, not the disease.